Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is found in two main forms: vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). Both are first metabolized by the liver, where they are converted to 25(OH)D (calcifediol). Thereafter, they are converted by the kidneys to 1,25(OH)2D3 (calcitriol), a biologically active hormone. Vitamin D2 is largely manufactured from plant-based sources and then added to foods to fortify them, whereas vitamin D3 is predominantly made in the skin when 7-dehydrocholesterol is converted to the vitamin upon exposure to sunlight, but it can also be obtained from some animal-based sources, such as salmon and other fatty fish. Vitamin D produced in the skin can last up to twice as long in the blood compared with ingested vitamin D. Most laboratories consider a vitamin D level of 20 to 50 ng/mL to be adequate for healthy persons and a level <12 ng/mL to indicate deficiency. Treatment of deficiency may include supplementation and increased sun exposure.

How Does Vitamin D Affect Development of Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Vitamin D has long been known to be crucial to bone health by regulating bone metabolism but has also been shown to play other crucial physiologic roles, including regulating the immune system.1,2 Subsequently, it can play an important role in the development of autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Increasing evidence indicates serum vitamin D…

Because astronauts are patients too.

Weird ICD-10 Codes: Who Knew You’d Ever Need These?

  It’s just a typical Saturday, you’re riding your horse-drawn cart into town when suddenly you have a noncollision accident which throws you to the ground. You lie there, and for the life of you, you can’t remember the ICD-10 code for this very scenario.  Well, we’ve got you covered. Peruse our list of obscure…

10 Principles for Diabetes Management

The 10 “guiding principles” of diabetes management help clinicians identify gaps in diabetes care and provide the most comprehensive care for their patients.

The Calorie Counter and Diet Tracker app uses prompt self-monitoring of behavioral outcome to encourage healthy habits. Every day, users can log their foods and the app will provide calorie counts. The app generates charts that let users see their progress over time as they work toward their customizable goals.The app is free for both Apple and Android devices.

10 Apps to Encourage Physical Activity

Fitness applications (apps) for smartphones have enjoyed increasing popularity in recent years. A recent study, “Implementation of Behavior Change Techniques in Mobile Applications for Physical Activity” from David E. Conroy, PhD, and colleagues identified behavior other change techniques in the 100 most popular fitness apps. This slideshow breaks down the different techniques used in 10…

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