Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that is found in two main forms: vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol). Both are first metabolized by the liver, where they are converted to 25(OH)D (calcifediol). Thereafter, they are converted by the kidneys to 1,25(OH)2D3 (calcitriol), a biologically active hormone. Vitamin D2 is largely manufactured from plant-based sources and then added to foods to fortify them, whereas vitamin D3 is predominantly made in the skin when 7-dehydrocholesterol is converted to the vitamin upon exposure to sunlight, but it can also be obtained from some animal-based sources, such as salmon and other fatty fish. Vitamin D produced in the skin can last up to twice as long in the blood compared with ingested vitamin D. Most laboratories consider a vitamin D level of 20 to 50 ng/mL to be adequate for healthy persons and a level <12 ng/mL to indicate deficiency. Treatment of deficiency may include supplementation and increased sun exposure.

How Does Vitamin D Affect Development of Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Vitamin D has long been known to be crucial to bone health by regulating bone metabolism but has also been shown to play other crucial physiologic roles, including regulating the immune system.1,2 Subsequently, it can play an important role in the development of autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Increasing evidence indicates serum vitamin D…

The Calorie Counter and Diet Tracker app uses prompt self-monitoring of behavioral outcome to encourage healthy habits. Every day, users can log their foods and the app will provide calorie counts. The app generates charts that let users see their progress over time as they work toward their customizable goals.The app is free for both Apple and Android devices.

10 Apps to Encourage Physical Activity

Fitness applications (apps) for smartphones have enjoyed increasing popularity in recent years. A recent study, “Implementation of Behavior Change Techniques in Mobile Applications for Physical Activity” from David E. Conroy, PhD, and colleagues identified behavior other change techniques in the 100 most popular fitness apps. This slideshow breaks down the different techniques used in 10…

Endocrinology Advisor Social Media Survey 2014

How do endocrinologists and diabetes educators use social media? Do you suffer from fear of missing out — also known as FOMO — wondering if other health care providers are getting more out of social media websites than you? Could you get a better job if you networked on LinkedIn? Attract more patients by promoting…

Suggest that patients have a healthy snack before big meals to help curb their appetites and avoid overeating. They can also talk to the host to find out what food will be served, allowing them time to figure out how to fit the foods into their current meal plans.

Diabetes Management Tips for the Holidays

The holidays should be an enjoyable time of year, but all of the food, parties and traveling can make it more difficult for patients to manage their diabetes. Providing your patients with management strategies can help them enjoy their holidays while still keeping their diabetes in check.

People with acrogmegaly typically have thick lips, coarse facial features, a jutting forehead and jaw, and widely spaced teeth; and large hands and feet. They also often perspire excessively.


Acromegaly is a serious endocrine condition resulting from an excess of growth hormone (GH) in the blood, according to the Hormone Health Network and based on information from the Endocrine Society. GH is released by the pituitary gland and is carried through the rest of the body where it has specific effects. In children, excess…

This colored x-ray shows a gastric band (lower center right) fitted around the stomach of a 35-year-old to treat obesity by restricting the amount of food he can eat.

Obesity & Comorbidities

Worldwide obesity prevalence has nearly doubled since 1980. As a result comorbidities associated with obesity have also skyrocketed.

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