Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance Increased in Obese Patients

HealthDay News — Resistance to the antilipolytic effect of insulin (Adipo-IR) is increased in obese individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), and in those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes, according to a study published in Diabetes.

Amalia Gastaldelli, PhD, from the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, and colleagues examined the role of Adipo-IR in a large group of people with NGT, IGT, and type 2 diabetes. The authors evaluated Adipo-IR, peripheral IR, and β-cell function in 302 subjects with varying glucose tolerance.

The researchers found that, compared with lean-NGT, fasting Adipo-IR was increased 2-fold in obese-NGT and IGT and 3-fold in type 2 diabetes (4.1 ± 0.3 vs 8.0 ± 1.1, 9.2 ± 0.7, and 11.9 ± 0.6, respectively). Progressive decline in β-cell function correlated with a progressive impairment in free fatty acid (FFA) suppression during the oral glucose tolerance test; when subjects became overtly diabetic the increase in mean plasma glucose concentration became manifest.

“In conclusion, the progressive decline in β-cell function that begins in ‘normal’ glucose tolerant individuals is associated with a progressive increase in FFA and fasting Adipo-IR,” the researchers wrote.

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  1. Gastaldelli A, Gaggini M, DeFronzo RA. Role of adipose tissue insulin resistance in the natural history of T2DM: results from the San Antonio Metabolism Study [published online January 4, 2017]. Diabetes. doi:10.2337/db16-1167