(HealthDay News) — Decreased vegetable protein intake and increased dietary acid load are associated with higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes, according to a study published online in the Journal of Diabetes Investigation.

Hiroya Iwase, MD, from the Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine in Japan, and colleagues assessed dietary intake in 149 patients with type 2 diabetes using a validated, self-administered diet history questionnaire. Potential renal acid load (PRAL) and net endogenous acid production (NEAP) were used to assess dietary acid load.

The researchers found that carbohydrate energy/total energy was negatively correlated with animal protein energy/total energy, PRAL or NEAP score. However, carbohydrate energy/total energy was positively correlated with vegetable protein energy/total energy. 

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The subgroup of patients with lower vegetable protein energy/total energy or higher PRAL or NEAP score was significantly associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome, after logistic regression analyses.

“Our study showed that carbohydrate intake was associated with quality of dietary protein and dietary acid load,” the researchers wrote. “Furthermore, decreased vegetable protein intake and increased dietary acid load were associated with prevalence of metabolic syndrome.”


  1. Iwase H et al. J Diabetes Investig. 2015;doi:10.1111/jdi.12326.