Smoking is an important, modifiable risk factor for type 2 diabetes, researchers wrote in Diabetes Care.
To learn more about the link between smoking and incident type 2 diabetes, taking into account potential confounding factors, and to investigate effect modifiers and intermediate factors, the researchers conducted a prospective case-cohort study within eight European countries.
This study, the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct, included 12,043 cases of incident type 2 diabetes and a random subcohort of 16,835 people. All told, 10,327 diabetes cases and 13,863 subcohort participants were included in the analyses.
The researchers found hazard ratios (HRs) of type 2 diabetes of 1.40 (95% CI, 1.26-1.55) for former smokers and 1.43 (95% CI, 1.27-1.61) for current smokers in men. Results were independent of age, education, center, physical activity and consumption of alcohol, coffee and meat.
In women, however, associations between smoking and type 2 diabetes were weaker. HRs were 1.18 (95% CI, 1.07-1.30) for former smokers and 1.13 (95% CI, 1.03-1.25) for current smokers, according to study results.
Some evidence of effect modification by BMI was found, as the link between smoking and type 2 diabetes was slightly stronger in men with normal weight vs. those with overall adiposity.
In light of these results, smoking cessation should be encouraged to prevent the development of type 2 diabetes, the researchers concluded.
The aims of this study were to investigate the association between smoking and incident type 2 diabetes, accounting for a large number of potential confounding factors.
The researchers assessed type 2 diabetes incidence in both current and former smokers. Results revealed a higher incidence of type 2 diabetes in people who had ever smoked as compared with those who had not, independent of other factors.