(HealthDay News) — For patients with type 2 diabetes, high dietary sodium intake is associated with cardiovascular disease, according to a study published online July 22 in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism.

Chika Horiakwa, RD, from the University of Niigata Prefecture Faculty of Human Life Studies in Japan, and colleagues examined the correlation between dietary sodium intake and incidence of complications of diabetes in a nationwide cohort. A total of 1,588 patients aged 40 to 70 years with HbA1c ≥6.5% responded to a dietary survey and were included in analyses.

The researchers found that the hazard ratios for cardiovascular disease (CVD) were 1.70 (95% CI, 0.98-2.94), 1.47 (95% CI, 0.82-2.62), and 2.07 (95% CI, 1.21-3.90), respectively, for patients in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of sodium intake compared with the first quartile, after adjustment for confounders (trend P<.01).

Compared with patients with HbA1c <9.0%, for patients who had HbA1c ≥9.0 percent, the hazard ratio for CVD was dramatically elevated in patients in the top vs. the bottom quartile of sodium intake (9.91 [95% CI, 2.66-36.87) vs. 1.16 [95% CI, 0.56-2.39]; interaction, P<.01).

“Findings suggested that high dietary sodium intake is associated with elevated incidence of CVD in patients with type 2 diabetes and that there is a synergistic effect between HbA1c values and dietary sodium intake for the development of CVD,” the researchers wrote.


  1. Horiakwa C et al. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014;doi:10.1210/jc.2013-4315.