OBJECTIVE Evidence indicates an increased risk of certain cancers among people with type 2 diabetes. Evidence for rarer cancers and for type 1 diabetes is limited. We explored the excess risk of site-specific cancer incidence and mortality among people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, compared with the general Australian population.

CONCLUSIONS Type 1 and type 2 diabetes are associated with an excess risk of incidence and mortality for overall and a number of site-specific cancers, and this is only partially explained by bias. We suggest that screening for cancers in diabetic patients is important.

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