Hormonal Treatment of Transsexual Adults: State of the Art

The Future for Gender Dysphoria Treatment

“Although things are changing, I would like to see more support and less stigma. We still have a long way to go. More acceptance will lead to earlier diagnosis and less emotional stress and depression,” said Dr. Leinung. The Endocrine Society identifies the following areas as requiring further study in adults with gender dysphoria:1

  • Long-term effects of hormone treatment
  • Requirements and effects of anti-androgen treatment
  • Long-term psychological risks of sex reassignment

“Right now we have a number of centers with patient populations ranging from dozens to hundreds. Data is starting to accumulate, but I would like to see an NIH-sponsored, dynamic database,” said Dr. Safer.

The Endocrine Society and WPATH have made great strides in gaining the acceptance and understanding of the unique needs of people with gender dysphoria. Their guidelines and continued research should continue to advance and improve the lives of people in the gender dysphoria community.


  1. Wylie C, Cohen-Kettenis P, Delemarre-van de Waal HA et al. Endocrine treatment of transsexual persons: An endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009; 94(9):3132-3154.
  2. American Psychiatric Association DSM-5 Development. Gender dysphoria fact sheet. http://www.dsm5.org/Documents/Gender%20Dysphoria%20Fact%20Sheet.pdf. Published 2013. Accessed August 2014.