Diagnosis & Disease Information

TSHomas are a rare cause of hyperthyroidism. Unlike primary hyperthyroidism, where TSH levels are low or undetectable, TSHomas cause central, or secondary, hyperthyroidism. In addition to inappropriate secretion of TSH, TSHomas may cause hypersecretion of the pituitary hormones, growth hormone (GH), and prolactin (PL).

Toxic nodular goiter, also known as Plummer disease, is a condition where one or more growths or nodules occur in the thyroid gland. Toxic nodular goiter is the second most common cause of hyperthyroidism after Graves’ disease. It affects both men and women, particularly those who are aged 50 and older.

Diabetic diarrhea, a subtype of chronic diarrhea, typically occurs in people with severe insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and who show signs of generalized neuropathy. This is a common symptom of diabetes, particularly in those who have had diabetes for a long time or whose condition has been poorly managed.

Sellar masses (SMs) are adenoma bodies that are typically located on or around the pituitary gland, specifically near the sella turcica. Pituitary adenomas (PAs) account for the vast majority of SMs and are subdivided into nonfunctioning adenomas (NFAs) or functioning adenomas.

History Historically, gout was seen in individuals with access to an abundance of protein-rich food and alcohol, leading scholars to coin the phrase “arthritis of the rich” to describe gout. Monarchs, who often indulged in feasts served with wine and beer, would be the highest risk group for developing gout, which led to other colloquialisms…

Hypercalcemia Causes & Presentation Hypercalcemia is a condition in which the calcium level in your blood is above normal. The normal range of calcium is 8.5 to 10.5 mg/dl (4.3 to 5.3 mEq/L or 2.2 to 2.7 mmol/L).1 This reference range may differ by 0.5 mg/dl depending on the laboratory or hypercalcemia workup. Patients typically…

History and Epidemiology Hypocalcemia occurs when there is too little calcium in the bloodstream. The normal range of calcium is 8.5 to 10.5 mg/dl (4.3 to 5.3 mEq/L or 2.2 to 2.7 mmol/L).1 This reference range may differ by 0.5 mg/dl depending on the testing laboratory. Hypocalcemia may be fatal if left untreated.2 Symptoms of…

History & Pituitary Adenoma Epidemiology Pituitary adenomas are typically prolactinomas, which are the most frequent cause of elevated prolactin levels. Pituitary adenomas comprise over 85% of pituitary tumors, and 25% to 30% of these are hormonally inactive.1 The incidence of prolactinomas is four times greater in women than in men.2 They are the most frequent…

History & Epidemiology of Pheochromocytoma Pheochromocytoma is a rare neuroendocrine disorder in which a tumor grows from chromaffin cells within the adrenal medulla of the adrenal glands.1 This tumor causes the continuous overproduction of epinephrine and norepinephrine, which, if left without pheochromocytoma treatment, can lead to severe or life-threatening damage to other body systems.2 Extra-adrenal…

History & Epidemiology of Central Hypothyroidism Hypothyroidism may be defined as primary, secondary, or tertiary hypothyroidism. Primary hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone. Lack of iodine and Hashimoto thyroiditis are the 2 main causes of primary hypothyroidism.1 Secondary and tertiary hypothyroidism are also known as central hypothyroidism (CeH). Central…

History & Epidemiology Thyroid hormone resistance (THR) describes a syndrome that causes impaired sensitivity to thyroid hormones, which exert a key role in postembryonic development and physiological homeostasis. Thyroid hormone resistance is a rare condition that has often been misdiagnosed and mistreated. Because there is no therapy currently shown to completely correct the gene mutation…