Zachary Spiritos, Author at Endocrinology Advisor

Zachary Spiritos

All articles by Zachary Spiritos

Achalasia and esophageal motility disorders

I. What every physician needs to know. Disorders of esophageal motility can be divided into two categories: hypomotility and hypermotility, either of which can affect the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and/or the esophageal body. The esophagus is lined by both circular and longitudinal muscles that terminate at a 2- to 4-cm circular muscle layer called…

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