Fat, Carbohydrate Quality May Affect Postprandial Glucose in Type 1 Diabetes

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Fat and carbohydrate quality may influence postprandial glucose response in patients with type 1 diabetes.
Fat and carbohydrate quality may influence postprandial glucose response in patients with type 1 diabetes.

(HealthDay News) — For patients with type 1 diabetes, fat quality influences postprandial blood glucose response in the context of meals with high glycemic index, according to a study published in Diabetes Care.

Lutgarda Bozzetto, MD, PhD, from Federico II University in Naples, Italy, and colleagues conducted a randomized crossover design study involving 13 patients with type 1 diabetes on insulin pump. Participants consumed 2 series of meals with the same carbohydrate quantity (high glycemic index or low glycemic index) and different quality fats: low in fat; high in saturated fat (butter); or high in monounsaturated fat (extra-virgin olive oil). 

Continuous glucose monitoring was performed and 6-hour postprandial blood glucose was examined.

The researchers found that postprandial blood glucose differed significantly for high-glycemic index and low-glycemic index meals, and was significantly higher during the first 3 hours after the high-glycemic index meals, with a tendency toward the opposite pattern later. 

Postprandial glucose was significantly lower after extra virgin olive oil vs low-fat or butter in the context of high-glycemic index meals, with a marked difference seen in the 0- to 3-hour glucose incremental area under the curve between extra virgin olive oil and low-fat or butter (P<.05). In the context of the low-glycemic index meals, there were no significant differences in postprandial glucose.

"An optimal prandial insulin administration would require considering, in addition to the quantity of carbohydrates, the quality of both carbohydrate and fat," the researchers wrote.

Reference

  1. Bozzetto L, Alderisio A, Giorgini M, et al. Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Reduces Glycemic Response to a High–Glycemic Index Meal in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Diabetes Care. 2016. doi:10.2337/dc15-2189.
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