The Copenhagen Co-morbidity in HIV Infection (COCOMO) study assessed the association between risk factors for cardiovascular disease and HIV infection.
Current care should encourage women to plan to breastfeed, provide corrective information for specific beliefs, and address issues relating to body image and social knowledge.
The findings from a national sample underscore the importance of developing policies and programs that reduce the prevalence of obesity.
Changes in serum insulin and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and beta cell function were significantly greater compared to the control diet
The J-shaped correlation seen for body mass index with cardiovascular disease risk is susceptible to confounding due to pre-existing comorbidities.
Researchers conducted a comprehensive narrative review to examine the correlation of the obesity pandemic with appearance of cancers in young adults under age 50.
Metabolites could be mediators in the connection between gut microbiota and obesity and points to potential future opportunities for targeting the gut microbiota in the prevention of obesity.
Change in body mass index to overweight during puberty significantly increases men's risk of heart failure later in life.
Of various interventions used in nonclinical settings for the prevention of childhood overweight and obesity, school-based programs that combine nutrition and exercise and include a home-based component appear to be the most effective approaches.
For men with metastatic melanoma treated with targeted or immune therapy, obesity is associated with improved survival.
For patients with chronic hepatitis B virus, body mass index is significantly associated with increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, with the risk more pronounced for women than men.
Following the success of this preliminary safety and feasibility study, more patients are being recruited for a larger clinical trial of the procedure to test the efficacy and durability of the procedure.
Given the high risk for metabolic disorder and type 2 diabetes, clinicians should select psychotropic medications carefully and monitor metabolic conditions regularly in their patients with serious mental illness.
For adults, but not youth, there was an increase in the prevalence of obesity in decade between 2007-2008 and 2015-2016.
Researchers evaluated the association between low maternal vitamin D status in early pregnancy and the likelihood of childhood obesity in the offspring.
Physicians should be aware that the benefit of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) on body composition might rapidly disappear after its withdrawal and strongly encourage women to optimize nutrition and increase physical activity when stopping MHT.
Calorie restriction over 2 years is associated with considerable weight loss, and with lower than expected energy expenditure.
Researchers compared glycemic control in cohorts of severely obese adolescents with type 2 diabetes undergoing medical and surgical interventions.
Results comparing the prevalence of obesity amongst adolescents with the rate of bariatric surgeries were presented at ENDO 2018.
In combination with dietary and physical activity counseling, all semaglutide doses from 0.05-0.4 mg daily were tolerated and resulted in dose-related reductions in body weight among people with obesity without diabetes.
In people with obesity and type 2 diabetes, a meal schedule that includes a high-energy breakfast promotes weight loss, improves diabetes, and decreases the need for insulin.
Roux-en Y gastric bypass increased the likelihood of nonvertebral fractures, including hip, wrist, and pelvic fractures.
New research suggests that there are separate pathways for the development of type 2 diabetes and obesity in patients with serious mental illness and demonstrate that there are important effects associated with sex and race or ethnicity.
Changes in weight influence the risk of diabetes, with lower risk of diabetes for obese individuals who lose weight vs stable obesity.
Results provide critical perspective on cardiovascular disease associated with overweight and obesity and challenge both the obesity paradox as well as the view that overweight is associated with greater longevity.
There was no significant difference in 12-month weight loss between the healthy low-fat and low-carbohydrate diets, and neither genotype pattern nor baseline insulin secretion was associated with the dietary effects on weight loss.
Microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm, and glossopharyngeal neuralgia was found to be a largely safe procedure, but patients with diabetes or obesity are an increased risk for reoperation within 30 days.
Plasma leptin levels are independently associated with sleep quality in obese patients with type 2 diabetes, but not in those who are not obese.
Children exposed to metformin had higher BMI and increased prevalence of overweight/obesity at 4 years of age.
Increases in waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio are associated with a greater excess risk of myocardial infarction in women than men.
Women, not men, with T2D had an increased obesity-related standardized cancer incidence compared with women in the general population as early as 5 years before diabetes diagnosis.
Researchers conducted a retrospective case-control study of deliveries that happened from 2006 to 2016 to examine associations of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy with maternal and perinatal outcomes.
Researchers sought to characterize the pattern of weight loss and regain after patients complete a weight management program, and found that patients may begin to regain weight immediately after completion.
Researchers used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1999 to 2016 to update the prevalence data on obesity trends among US children and adolescents age 2 to 19 years.
No significant difference in weight change between a healthy low-fat diet and a healthy low-carbohydrate diet. Genotype pattern or insulin secretion was not associated with dietary effects on weight loss.
Researchers observed detrimental effects of RYGB on bone turnover, mass, structure, and strength just 6 months postoperatively, and these effects persisted throughout the duration of the 12-month study.
The correlation between maternal pre-pregnancy overweight and childhood overweight at ages 1 and 3 years may be mediated by birth mode and infant gut microbiota.
Compared with control groups, behavior-based weight loss maintenance interventions are associated with less weight gain after cessation of the interventions.
For obese adults with type 2 diabetes, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery is associated with greater weight loss, lower HbA1c, and reduced cardiovascular risk compared with intensive medical diabetes and weight management.
A recent survey examines the correlation between bariatric surgery and rates of continuation, discontinuation, or initiation of antidiabetes treatment 6 years after bariatric surgery compared with a matched control obese group.
Weight loss may result in improved pain, symptom severity, depression, and fibromyalgia scores in patients with obesity.
Higher concentrations of perfluoroalkyl substances are associated with greater weight regain in a diet-induced weight-loss setting.
The Gram-negative bacterium Helicobacter pylori was associated with increased marginal ulceration rates, but otherwise had little impact on bariatric surgery outcomes.
A recent study examined the extent to which rising BMI accounts for reductions in the rate of mortality using data from cohorts of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and linked mortality files.
Eating speed can affect changes in obesity, body mass index, and waist circumference in patients with type 2 diabetes.
A man with morbid obesity, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and obstructive sleep apnea presents with shortness of breath and dyspnea on exertion. What is the next step in care?
Public health policies should aim to reduce the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and encourage healthy alternatives such as water.
A recent study reported that the risk for suicide and non-fatal self-harm was increased after bariatric surgery.
High body fat levels are associated with elevated risk of estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in postmenopausal women with normal body mass index.
The school-based healthy lifestyle program intervention encouraged healthy eating and physical activity and included a daily physical activity opportunities and termly cooking skills workshops.
Abdominal obesity and low inflammation levels independent of body mass index are inversely associated with fitness.
For preschool children, overweight/obesity is associated with more asthma symptom days and exacerbations among those not treated with a daily controller.
The amount of US health care resources devoted to treating obesity-related illness in US adults rose 29% from 2001 to 2015.
Sleep duration and circadian components of the sleep/wake cycle are linked to obesity-related eating behaviors and childhood body weight.
Pain management in patients who are obese can be a challenge due to their altered pharmacokinetic profile.
Patients were found to have improved pressure pain threshold at the patella and the wrist after weight loss associated with bariatric surgery, suggesting bariatric surgery may improve pain sensitization.
Findings indicate recent progress in reducing the prevalence of severe obesity among young children in the United States enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children.
Obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with increased recurrence among men with prostate cancer who undergo radical prostatectomy.
Weight loss after bariatric surgery in adolescents predicts the degree of longitudinal improvement in elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, and diabetes.
Body mass index and odds of overweight and/or obesity are increased with exposure to communities with higher rates of obesity.
Bariatric surgery is associated with lower risks of obesity-related comorbidities but a clinically important increased risk for complications compared with medical treatment.
Researchers found that only 12.2% of adults met fruit intake recommendations and 9.3% of adults met vegetable intake recommendations.
Obese patients who undergo bariatric surgery have reduced all-cause mortality, and obese adults with type 2 diabetes who undergo gastric bypass have improved outcomes.
The compound cinnamaldehyde, found in cinnamon, activates fat cells to start burning energy in both mice and humans.
No statistically significant difference in weight loss at 5 years was observed in comparing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy vs laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in morbidly obese patients.
The American Medical Association is offering a 3-hour online nutrition course for physicians to help patients make the nutritional changes they need to prevent and help treat heart disease, diabetes, and high blood pressure.
Efforts to reduce takeaway meal consumption in children could have both short-term and long-term health benefits.
The "Minding the Baby" (MTB) parenting home visiting program can significantly lower rates of obesity in young children.
Researchers examined whether adherence to healthy dietary patterns interacts with the genetic predisposition to obesity.
The rates of 3 major complications at less than 30 days after bariatric surgery are low and vary among surgical procedures.
Extended-contact, text message interventions appears to be effective for adults in supporting weight management.
Research increasingly points to obesity and associated comorbidities as potential contributors to Alzheimer disease pathophysiology, suggesting that conditions such as prediabetes and diabetes may be modifiable risk factors.
Individuals with prior Roux-en-Y gastric bypass have blunted β-cell sensitivity to changes in glycemia.
Weight-loss diets, such as those low in fat and saturated fat consumption, with or without added exercise, may reduce the risk for all-cause mortality in obese adults.
Different weight loss patterns are observed following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, with much of the weight loss maintained over time.
Underweight woman were more likely to receive lifesaving interventions for antepartum hemorrhage and acute renal failure than women with normal BMI prepregnancy.
More than half of today's children are expected to be obese at the age of 35 years, with about half of the prevalence occurring during childhood.
For patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, abdominal obesity is associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality.
A man presents to the emergency department having had palpitations for the past week, and he has a medical history of hypertension, obesity, and hyperlipidemia. What's the diagnosis?
Researchers suggested that changes in perfusion may contribute to improved liver metabolism after bariatric surgery in obese patients.
Findings indicate that using a BMI cutpoint of 30 may lead to bias in measuring the effects of obesity on health outcomes in postmenopausal women.
Of 14,067,894 reported cancer cases, 280,100 (2%) were attributed to diabetes alone, 544,300 (3.9%) were attributed to a high BMI alone, and 792,600 (5.6%) were attributed to both.
Investigators believe that circulating adipokines may be associated with the development of preeclampsia in women with type 1 diabetes in the first trimester.
Higher childhood body mass index and increases in BMI during childhood are linked to an increased risk of early adult ischemic stroke.
Major depressive disorder with atypical features was shown to share genetic factors with obesity-related traits.
The prevalence of sarcopenia — particularly in combination with ostepenia — increases with age, and sarcopenic obesity may be underrecognized, despite its impact in patients with rheumatic diseases.
The rise of brain glucose levels is blunted during hyperglycemia in adults with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
There is a need for bridging the disconnect between policies that address underweight and overweight children and adolescents.
The high prevalence of T2D in African American women could explain previously identified racial disparities in breast cancer incidence.
Traumatic events included death of a child, being the victim of assault, experiencing a life-threatening illness, or spouse or child experiencing an accident.
Higher-dose and specialized treatment content designed to help families maintain weight-control behaviors following family-based behavioral weight loss treatment enhances weight outcomes.
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) with simultaneous cholecystectomy had a significantly higher complication rate and took more than 1 hour longer than RYGB without cholecystectomy.
Probiotic supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in body weight, BMI, and fat percentage in people with overweight or obesity.
Bariatric surgery appears to induce changes in the gastrointestinal tract and its interactions with the endocrine system in ways that may influence glycemic control.
Obese men have lower semen volume, number, concentration, and motility, as well as a higher prevalence of oligospermia and asthenospermia.
The latest CDC findings show that 40% of US adults and 19% of US children are affected by obesity.
The efficacy of liraglutide therapy was examined in metformin-treated subjects with obesity.
Dietary energy density correlated with elevated BMI and waist circumference in normal-weight women.
Referral to a commercial weight management program, such as Weight Watchers, can be effective in preventing diabetes.
Researchers have identified lasting benefits for patients with severe obesity who undergo Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery.
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