Adipose Tissue Insulin Resistance Increased in Obese Patients

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Adipose tissue insulin resistance is increased in obese patients with normal glucose tolerance as well as impaired glucose tolerance.
Adipose tissue insulin resistance is increased in obese patients with normal glucose tolerance as well as impaired glucose tolerance.

HealthDay News -- Resistance to the antilipolytic effect of insulin (Adipo-IR) is increased in obese individuals with normal glucose tolerance (NGT), and in those with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and type 2 diabetes, according to a study published in Diabetes.

Amalia Gastaldelli, PhD, from the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, and colleagues examined the role of Adipo-IR in a large group of people with NGT, IGT, and type 2 diabetes. The authors evaluated Adipo-IR, peripheral IR, and β-cell function in 302 subjects with varying glucose tolerance.

The researchers found that, compared with lean-NGT, fasting Adipo-IR was increased 2-fold in obese-NGT and IGT and 3-fold in type 2 diabetes (4.1 ± 0.3 vs 8.0 ± 1.1, 9.2 ± 0.7, and 11.9 ± 0.6, respectively). Progressive decline in β-cell function correlated with a progressive impairment in free fatty acid (FFA) suppression during the oral glucose tolerance test; when subjects became overtly diabetic the increase in mean plasma glucose concentration became manifest.

"In conclusion, the progressive decline in β-cell function that begins in 'normal' glucose tolerant individuals is associated with a progressive increase in FFA and fasting Adipo-IR," the researchers wrote.

Reference

  1. Gastaldelli A, Gaggini M, DeFronzo RA. Role of adipose tissue insulin resistance in the natural history of T2DM: results from the San Antonio Metabolism Study [published online January 4, 2017]. Diabetes. doi:10.2337/db16-1167
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