Celiac Disease May Raise Risk for Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Type 1 Diabetes

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Patients with celiac disease and type 1 diabetes may face an increased risk for autoimmune thyroid disease.
Patients with celiac disease and type 1 diabetes may face an increased risk for autoimmune thyroid disease.

(HealthDay News) — Celiac disease is a risk factor for development of autoimmune thyroid disease in patients with type 1 diabetes, according to a study published in Diabetes Care.

Matthew Kurien, MD, from the Royal Hallamshire Hospital in Sheffield, U.K., and colleagues examined the risk for autoimmune thyroid disease for individuals with both type 1 diabetes and celiac disease in a population-based cohort study. Data were included for 947 individuals with type 1 diabetes and small intestinal biopsy-verified celiac disease. These patients were matched with 4584 controls with type 1 diabetes but without celiac disease.

The researchers found that celiac disease was a risk factor for later autoimmune thyroid disease in type 1 diabetes. Ninety patients with type 1 diabetes and celiac disease developed autoimmune thyroid disease during follow-up (expected, 54). This corresponded with a hazard ratio [HR] of 1.67 after adjustment for sex, age, and calendar period (95% CI, 1.32-2.11; P<.001). 

Those who had celiac disease for 10 years or more had the highest excess risk (HR=2.22; 95% CI, 1.49-3.23). Both men and women experienced increases in risk. 

Celiac disease was associated with increased risk for hypothyreosis (HR=1.66; 95% CI, 1.30-2.12) and hyperthyreosis (HR=1.72; 95% CI, 0.95-3.11).

"Among patients with [type 1 diabetes], [celiac disease] is a risk factor for the later development of [autoimmune thyroid disease]," the researchers wrote.

Reference

  1. Kurien M, Mollazadegan K, Sanders DS, Ludvigsson JF. Celiac Disease Increases Risk of Thyroid Disease in Patients With Type 1 Diabetes: A Nationwide Cohort Study. Diabetes Care. 2015;doi:10.2337/dc15-2117.
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