Gut Microbiomes of Infants with High Risk for Diabetes Differ by Location

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The gut microbiomes of infants who have a high risk of developing type 1 diabetes vary significantly based on geographical location, according to a study published in Diabetes Care.

The microbiomes of infants at high risk for type 1 diabetes were comparable to the general population based on their location, reported Eric W. Triplett, PhD, of the Institute of Food and Agricultural Studies at the University of Florida in Gainesville, Fla., and colleagues.

Previous evidence has associated gut microbiome dysbiosis with a variety of diseases, including type 1 diabetes. The researchers in this study sought to determine how geographical location affects the microbiome of infants who are at high risk for type 1 diabetes in a population of homogenous HLA class II genotypes.

The study included 90 high-risk infants from The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young (TEDDY) study, including participants from the United States, Germany, Sweden, and Finland. The researchers performed high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing on stool samples from each participant.

In the general population, bacterial community diversity over time varies significantly in different geographical locations. The researchers found that the infants in this study had microbiomes consistent with the general population in their location. Finland and Colorado have a significantly lower bacterial diversity; Sweden and Washington state have microbiomes dominated by Bifidobacterium during early life.

These results indicate that studies attempting to identify the microbiome disease phenotype must take the geographical origin of the subjects into account due to the geographical variations in gut microbiomes.

Genes Affect Gut Bacteria That Determines Body Weight
Infants who have a high risk of developing type 1 diabetes have gut microbiomes that vary by location.

OBJECTIVE Gut microbiome dysbiosis is associated with numerous diseases, including type 1 diabetes. This pilot study determines how geographical location affects the microbiome of infants at high risk for type 1 diabetes in a population of homogenous HLA class II genotypes.

RESULTS Study site-specific patterns of gut colonization share characteristics across continents. Finland and Colorado have a significantly lower bacterial diversity, while Sweden and Washington state are dominated by Bifidobacterium in early life. Bacterial community diversity over time is significantly different by geographical location.

CONCLUSIONS The microbiome of high-risk infants is associated with geographical location. Future studies aiming to identify the microbiome disease phenotype need to carefully consider the geographical origin of subjects.

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